Tag Archives: receivers

Data geometry: rotation angles for receivers

Receiver rotations are described by three angles:   θ, α and β, as shown in the image below. These rotate from the model coordinates x,y,z to the fully rotated measurement coordinates x'',y'',z''. For the rotation matrices associated with these angles, see Key and Lockwood (2010).   The  θ angle describes the horizontal rotation of the receiver's x  axis from the 2D model strike direction x For a typical CSEM data set ,  the data should be rotated so that  θ = 0. Therefore, for an array of receivers inline to a horizontal electric dipole source (with transmitter azimuth of 90°), the inline electric field will be the E_y component.  There angles α and β describe tilts of the receiver.  α is the vertical tilt of the E_{x''} component. If  α =0, then β describes the vertical tilt of the E_{y''}, otherwise β  describes a slanted angle to E_{y''}.

Receiver rotations are described by three angles.  For horizontal receivers, alpha and beta will be zero.
Receiver rotations are described by three angles. \theta is the horizontal rotation from the model strike x. For horizontal receivers, \alpha and \beta will be zero.

 

For receivers rotated so that theta = 0, the \beta angle then describes the tilt of the E_y component, and is the angle positive clockwise down from the y axis.  For a receiver tilted  down to the right, \beta will be positive.

 

RxTilt2
For a receiver tilted up to the right, \beta will be negative.

 

 

References

Key, K., & Lockwood, A. (2010). Determining the orientation of marine CSEM receivers using orthogonal Procrustes rotation analysis. Geophysics, 75(3), F63–F70. doi:10.1190/1.3378765

Data geometry: horizontal positions of transmitters and receivers

For MT receivers, the x coordinate of the receivers is ignored by MARE2DEM since the 2D MT fields are strike invariant. For controlled-source electromagnetic receivers, there are a few considerations you need to mind about the accuracy of MARE2DEM, which uses a total field implementation for the source and a wavenumber domain transformation to compute the spatially varying EM fields:

  • The receiver  component should be close the to  transmitter position. Receivers don't need to be perfectly inline, but  if they are more than 1-2 km down-strike from the transmitter (gray regions below), the default settings for the wavenumber domain transforms in MARE2DEM may break down due to highly oscillatory kernel functions.
  • Due to the source singularity in the 2.5D wavenumber domain, receivers located down strike from the transmitter (pink region below) may be inaccurate unless they are positioned much deeper than the source.
  • If modeling point dipoles, remember that receivers closer than a few real dipole lengths from the transmitter will be inaccurate due to finite length dipole effects (red region below). You can instead specify a finite length dipole in the data file, but this comes at an increased numerical effort for MARE2DEM (more on that in another tutorial).

 

EM (not MT) receivers should be positioned with an x coordinate in the green region. Receivers too close the transmitter will suffer from inaccuracy due to the source singularity (in the pink region). If a point dipole is being modeled, receivers should be located at least a few dipole lengths away (red region). Finally, while technically receivers can be given any x coordinate, the default setting used by MARE2DEM for the 2.5D wavenumber domain transforms may break down if the receivers are located too far down strike from the transmitter (gray regions); typically this may be 1 -2 km or more offline.
EM (not MT) receivers should be positioned with an x coordinate in the green region. Receivers too close to the transmitter will suffer from inaccuracy due to the source singularity (in the pink region). If a point dipole is being modeled, receivers should be located at least a few dipole lengths away (red region). Finally, while technically receivers can be given any x coordinate, the default setting used by MARE2DEM for the 2.5D wavenumber domain transforms may break down if the receivers are located too far down strike from the transmitter (gray regions); typically this may be 1 -2 km or more offline.